olutionA revolution is a time period that changes our society rapidly and significantly. The American, French and Industrial Revolutions are some very influential movements that fought for independence and for a better world. There are many causes that contribute to these revolutions, but they all began with a financial crisis.
The American Revolution or the Revolutionary War led to the birth of the United States. It was caused by the great British debt, so Britain tried to tax the colonies to increase more income. The American Revolution didn’t begin until 1775 but Britain and its American colonies were in relations ever since the 1600’s when Britain imposed the Navigational Acts. The Seven Years’ War, which was fought in Europe, Asia and North America, ended in 1763. The war was very expensive and after it ended Britain had kept troops in North America to defend the territories from France. Britain was deep in debt and felt that America should start paying a share of the costs of wars so they passed the Stamp Act in 1765. The Stamp Act taxed a variety of items from newspapers to playing cards. The unpopular act led to the American colonies feeling that they had no individual rights and they claimed that the British Parliament had no right on taxing them without a representative sent to them. The Boston Tea Party was a large shipment of tea dumped into the Boston harbour, which occurred in 1773. The Bostonians were mad at the fact that Britain had imposed many new taxes to be in total control of the colonies.In 1774 British Parliament passed a series of laws called the Intolerable Acts to punish the colonies for the Boston Tea Party. The Intolerable Acts included the Boston Port Act, Massachusetts Government Act, Quartering Act, Administration of Justice Act, and the Quebec Act. The Boston Port Act closed the Boston Port, which restricted colonial trade. The Quartering Act was a military cause to the revolution; it said that soldiers were not allowed to take things from civilians during peacetime. The Massachusetts Government Act imposed military rules on colonies, which meant no democracy. Britain and its American colonies’ relations worsened when the Congress voted to cut trade with Britain unless they got rid of the Intolerable Acts. The revolution didn’t start until April 19,1775 when the British soldiers and American patriots clashed at Lexington and Concord. When Britain was in great debt it had a sense that they had to rule their colonies by being more strict and efficient so they taxed the colonies without their consent. Therefore the American Revolution had been caused by many reasons but it ultimately began over a financial crisis.
France went into the economical crisis, but the careless Nobles and kings did not do anything about it and new ideas of government caused the French Revolution. The French Revolution occurred between 1789-1799; it began with a government financial crisis but quickly turned into reform and violent change. France was already in great debt from the Seven Years’ War and supporting the American colonies against Britain in the Revolutionary War. During the 1770’s, the French economy began falling apart. The harvest was poor so there was not enough food supplies for the large population. In 1788, the government went bankrupt and the government owed large amounts of money to the banks. France needed the money to pay for the wars of Louis XIV, also the kings needed money for wars in Europe and overseas to maintain French power. The careless king who did not do anything about the economical crisis was Louis XVI who went to the throne in 1774. He lacked strength and determination as a king; therefore he did not care about the economy. When he tried to help the financial conflict, he just tried to enforce more taxes but Parliament wouldn’t let him. The new ideas of government also caused the revolution. The revolution introduced democracy to France but it did not make the nation democratic. The Third Estate had wanted each estate to vote separately so they would have less of a chance of being outvoted, insisting for the three estates to unite into one national assembly, and wanted the Estate General to write a constitution. The king refused the demands of the Third Estate, especially the National Assembly one. In June 1789, representatives declared the Third Estate the National Assembly with the Tennis Court Oath. Forcibly the king made the first two estates join the Third Estate as the National Assembly. The French Revolution started on July 14, 1789 from the storming of the Bastille. Clearly, the French Revolution had begun with a huge financial crisis and then the political causes contributed.
During the 1700’s financiers and banks wanted more economical and efficient ways of using labour because doing almost everything by hand was too expensive. The Industrial Revolution began in 1750 in Great Britain because new methods of manufacturing goods were being developed. When the new methods were being developed many people moved to live in the cities for work. This led to everyone working together as once big group, which made everything faster, easier and cheaper. Before, manufacturing was only done by hand or simple machines and it was only done at home or at workshops. People who worked at the workshops had to do the work mostly independently, which took more time, effort and money. The industries and factories grew very quickly are there were new machines in most industries. The Textile Industry used the new spinning and weaving machines. These machines made making cloth and anything made out of cloth faster, less work and cheaper. Development of the steam engine led to steam being the major source of energy. The Iron and Coal Industries were very busy for the steam engine needed a lot of iron and coal to power. The steam engine was used in the Textile Industry and was a big part of coal mining. Producing goods by hand and simple machines at home or workshops was a waste of labour, time and money; in other words, time is money. The cause of the Industrial Revolution was in fact a financial reason.
The American, French, Industrial and many other revolutions began over different financial problems. Once the problem starts, other problems then contributes to the crisis that leads to the revolution. The American and French Revolutions began because their country was in deep debt from wars. The Industrial Revolution began because people had wanted to live life more efficiently in terms of labour and money.