The IliadStephen WongImportant Characters:Agamemnonking of Mycenae; brother of MenelaosHektor Prince of Troy; son of Priam and HekubaAchillesgreatest warrior of the Achaian armyAiassong of Telamon; he has brute strength andcourageMenelaoshusband of Helen; brother of AgamemnonParis a prince of Troy; also son of Priam andHekubaPriamKing of Troy; very old manHelenwife of Menelaos; most beautiful woman Inthe worldDiomedesone of the best Achaian warriorsHekuba wife of PriamAeneas son of Aphrodite; TrojanAphroditeDaughter of Zeus; goddess of love; motherof Aeneas; patron of Paris; on the Trojans’sideAthena daughter of Zeus; goddess of wisdom; onthe Achaian sideAresson of Zeus; god of prophecy, light, poetry,and music; on the Trojans’ sideZeussupreme god and king of OlymposPoseidonyounger brother of Zeus; god of seaChryseis and Briseis who were captured during a raid in Troy are awardedas war prizes’ to Agamemnon and Achilles. Chryseis for Agamemnon and Briseisfor Achilles. Chryseis is the daughter of Chryses which prays Apollo to helpget back his daughter. Apollo causes a deadly plague in the Achaian camp.Achilles asked Kalchas to explain the cause of Apollo’s anger. Apollo plaguedthe Achaians because Agamemnon refused to return Chryseis to her father.
Agamemnon demands Achilles’ war prize in place of Chryseis. Achilles becauseangry at Agamemnon’s demand and withdraws his troops from the Achaian army.Agamemnon returns Chryseis to her father then collects Briseis from Achilles.Strangely, Achilles gives him the girl. Then, Achilles decides to tell hismother about the problem. Achilles asks his mother to ask Zeus to make surethat the Trojans win.
Thetis goes to Zeus and asks and he agrees to help theTrojans.Agamemnon has a dream that he can defeat the Trojans so, full of falsehope, he planned a mass assault on Troy. Agamemnon orders his army to preparethemselves to attack. When the news of the Achaian plan arrived in Troy, Hektorordered his troops to meet the Achaians on the plain in front of Troy.Paris dares any of the Achaian warriors to fight him personally. Then,Menelaos accepted the challenge. But, Paris is suddenly scared and backs out.
Hektor then fines Paris and scolds him. The agreement was whoever won getsHelen, then the war would be over. They fight on a large open area between thearmies. Menelaos hurts Paris then Aphrodite saves Paris and brings him to hisbedroom in Troy, where she also brings Helen. Then Agamemnon announces thatMenelaos has won.Hera wants the complete destruction of Troy so Zeus sends Athena to getthem fighting again.
Athena then tempts Pandaros to kill Menelaos, then hewould get great glory. Then, Pandaros stupidly shoots Menelaos with an arrowand wounds Menelaos. Agamemnon and the Achaians were shocked by this violationof the truce. The wound is not fatal, but when the surgeon is treating it,several Trojan regiments begin to attack. Agamemnon immediately orders is armyto fight and the army is cheerfully responding to Agamemnon’s praises.The battle then continues and has an outstanding warrior, Diomedes.Pandaros then wounds Diomedes and Diomedes asks for Athena’s aid.
She gives himmore courage, and the advantage of being able to tell between gods and mortals.She tells him not to fight with any of the gods but Aphrodite. Diomedes killsmany Trojans including Pandaros. Then, he wounds Aeneas and takes his horses asa war prize.
Diomedes is angry at Aphrodite’s interference so he wounds her inthe hand. The Achaians are slowly loosing and withdrawing. Hera and Athenahelps the Achaians. Ares complains to Zeus about the bad treatment he got andZeus tells him he doesn’t care.No more gods are fighting in the war.
The Achaians overpower theTrojans and drive them back. Diomedes and Glaukos challenge each other to apersonal duel. Later, they discover that they are related form theirgrandfathers. Then respectfully exchange their armor. Hektor then finds Paristo come back to fight. Andromache and Astyanax beg their man not to fight .
Hektor then says it is his duty.Hektor and Paris rejoin the Trojan army then they battle again. Athenaand Apollo wants to end the day’s combat by dueling Hektor to one of the bestAchaian warriors. Telamonian Aias battles with Hektor. No one wins.A shorttruce is called for burial of the dead. Zeus plans to end the Trojan War andwarns the gods not to interfere.
The Achaian army seems to be loosing and even King Agamemnon feels bad.Then, Diomedes convinced the army to stay and fight till Troy is destroyed.Agamemnon knows that he was wrong when he was unwise about taking Achilles’ warprize and offers to give her back if Achilles rejoins the army, but Achillesrefuses the offer.Agamemnon is bothered by the fate of the Achaian army so he held aconference and they send Diomedes and Odysseus to spy on the Trojans. They stopa man named Dolon and from him they learn the location of Hektor and his staffand also important information about the Trojan army.The Achaians then attack but many are wounded therefore the Trojansstart winning.
Patroklos dies because Achilles uses him as a substitute.The Achaians take cover behind their wall. The Trojans can not crossthe Achaian’s trench therefore, they attack on foot. An eagle with a serpentflies over the Trojan army and Poulydamas thinks this is a bad omen and asksHektor to retreat, but he refuses. The Trojan army finally knocks the Achaianwall down and the army storms inside. Zeus has brought the Trojans as far asdefeating the Achaians and he sits back and watches.
As Zeus watches, Poseidontakes this advantage and he disguises himself as Kachas and helps the Achaians.Achilles lets Patroklos wear his armor and tells Patroklos to only savethe ships. The Trojans believe that Achilles has returned and is going to beatthem up so Hektor and his army decide to retreat back to Troy.
Apollo decidesto enter the fighting and he hits Patroklos so hard that his vizored helmetflies off and then a Trojan soldier pierces him between the shoulders with ajavelin. Hektor sees Patroklos and he stabs Patroklos at the lower part of hisbelly.Hektor takes Patroklos’ armor then leaves him naked on the ground. TheTrojans wanted to take the body and mutilate it and the Achaians wanted to givehim a proper funeral ceremony. Two of the best warriors from both armies fightand along joins Apollo and Athena. Finally, Patroklos’ body is safely carriedback to the Achaian camp.When Achilles finds out that Patroklos died, he gets mad at himself andsobs.
Thetis promises to get new armor for Achilles that was taken by Hektor.The Trojans follow the Achaians when they take Patroklos’ body away so Achillesappears at the trench and scares the Trojans away. Achilles is very mad at thesight of Patroklos’ dead body so he promises to kill Hektor and twelve Trojanwarriors. Thetis receives new armor from Hephaistos and goes and searches forher son.Achilles, mad at Hektor for killing his friend, rejoins the Achaians andends the fight he has with Agamemnon. Agamemnon returns Briseis to Achillesalong with many other presents. Achilles knows his fate that he will die inbattle avenging for Patroklos but nothing would prevent him for fighting back.
Zeus tells the gods that they can join in on the sides they wish to help.Achilles wanted to kill Aeneas but Poseidon rescues him. Achilles doesn’t killAeneas so he kills many Trojans.The god of the river is mad at Achilles for all the bloodshed in theriver’s water so he attacks Achilles with waves and currents. Poseidon, Athena,Hera, and Hephaistos attack the river with fire.Hektor stands outside the Trojan gates to await Achilles and to fightwith him. When Achilles gets there, Hektor is so afraid he runs away.
Finally,Achilles and Hektor started fighting. Achilles kills Hektor. Then, Achillesattaches Hektor’s naked body to his chariot by the heels and drags the corpse ashe goes. Priam and Hekuba see what Achilles is doing and the moan and groan.Andromache collapses when she hears the news.Achilles dreams that Patroklos asks that his funeral be held so that hecan enter the realm of the dead in peace. The next morning, the soldiers gotwood and built a large funeral mound.
They place Patroklos’s body on the top ofthe mound and they sacrifice the twelve Trojan captives. Achilles holdsfuneral games in which valuable prizes are awarded. Hektor’s body has beenlying on the ground untouched.For nine days, Achilles drags Hektor’s corpse around the dead body ofPatroklos.
Zeus then orders that Hektor have a suitable burial. Priam talks toAchilles and moved him with memories of home and parents so Achilles agrees togive Priam Hektor’s body. Hektor’s body is placed on a mound and burned. Theyplaced his bones in a golden chest, then buried it in a shallow grave.