Management and LeadershipManagement and leadership are two words that are considered synonymous but describe two different concepts. According to the dictionary, management is the act, manner, or practice of managing; handling, supervision, or control; leadership is the capacity or ability to lead. In many organizations, management is a job description; leadership is a positive trait. The purpose of this paper is to distinguish between the two, to look at the responsibilities that come with leadership, and make suggestions about creating and maintaining a healthy organizational culture.Management is “the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals” (Bateman-Snell, 2003, p. 14). Management is a theory and a way of doing business.
Management is a process that is exercised in order for an organization to be successful. This process is usually broken down into four established functions: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (Bateman-Snell, 2003, p. 14). The people within an organization that practice management are called managers. Managers are “principally administratorsthey write business plans, set budgets and monitor progress” (Maccoby, 2000, para 1).
Other tasks handled by managers are problem-solving and facilitating meetings. Managers usually achieve their position through experience and understanding. A manager obtains authority through time and loyalty. A manager knows how the organization works and may also possess a good technical knowledge. People follow a manager because as employees, they are forced to, but preferably “a manager is also a leader that people want to follow” (Maccoby, 2000, para 8).
Leadership is “one of the many assets a successful manager must possess” (The Difference, 1997, para 2). While management can be considered a position, leadership can be considered a relationship. Leadership is the connection between the leader and led that makes management successful. This connection can strengthen the organization and make the work more focused and effective.
Leadership is the ability to get people to follow. A person who exhibits the trait of leadership is called a leader.A leader is a person who “influences others to attain goals” (McGraw-Hill, 2003, p. 366).
A leader exhibits special qualities that induce people to admire her. These qualities can include drive, motivation, integrity, and self-confidence. A good leader can motivate people to do what is asked.
She provides a clear vision and direction. An effective leader understands that leadership is not just a trait; it is a responsibility.Organizations should practice two forms of responsibility: social and corporate. According to investorwords.com, social responsibility is “the idea that businesses should not function amorally, but instead should contribute to the welfare of their communities”; corporate responsibility is the “accountability of a corporation to a code of ethics and to established laws”. An effective leader’s goal is to practice steps to support these responsibilities.
One of the main steps of a leader is to create and maintain a healthy organizational culture. According to Edgar Schein (n.d.), an organization’s culture defined is “a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way you perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems” (para. 5). A culture could be considered the company’s personality.
Each organization has its own culture, and this culture “determines the criteria for leadership” (Schein, n.d., para 11). An effective leader will shape the culture around the people working for the organization.One of the ways a leader can create a healthy organizational culture is to establish a defined set of rules. Let each employee know what is expected of them and why. An organization should have a defined mission and vision.
This allows a defined strategic plan to be put into place. Once the strategic plan is created, the leaders of an organization can start an operational plan and identify the company’s needs. These needs can be used to shape the culture. Involve the employees in the steps leading up to this shaping. Explain the process to the employees. Allow the employees to ask questions.
A good way for a leader to maintain a healthy culture is to set a good example. If a leader is a hard worker, has an excellent work ethic, and maintains a positive relationship with her subordinates, people will want to emulate her. Do not discipline employees in a negative way, such as yelling or berating, but stress that employees learn from their mistakes.
Involve all employees in the organization in some way, even the support staff. Ask questions and listen to the answers. Show pride in the company and in the work of subordinates and coworkers. Most importantly, work in such a way that encourages others to strive for excellence.
One of the biggest influences on an organization’s culture is change. Culture is supposed to imply structural stability. Change can be disastrous to culture. A leader should make many small steps to prepare an organization and its employees for change.
Examples of this could be to inform all effected employees of the change in plenty of time to adapt and prepare. Explain the change and the reasons behind it. Communicate and educate. Appreciate that employees are naturally resistant to change.
They tend to believe things are fine the way they are. If the change is explained to the employees in such a way that they can understand it, the transition will be smooth.In conclusion, a successful organization needs good managers and great leaders. There are a variety of ways to practice good management and effective leadership. There is no one best way.
Leadership is constant and continual developmental process. A successful leader appreciates the responsibilities that come with the role. The leader must find the right steps to establish and maintain a healthy organizational culture. It is important to design the culture by involving employees and inspiring them to follow it. By doing this, the culture will be a fulfilling one, and satisfied employees make a successful organization.
ReferencesBateman-Snell (Ed.). (2003).
Management: The New Competitive Landscape, Sixth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.Maccoby, M. (2000).
Understanding the Difference between Management and Leadership. Research Technology Management, 43. Retrieved January 29, 2005 from http://www.maccoby.com/Articles/UtDBMaL.html.Schein, E.
(n.d.) Organizational Culture and Leadership.
Retrieved January 30, 2005, from http://www.tnellen.com/ted/tc/schein.html.
The Difference between Management and Leadership (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2005, from http://www.