Nature- inborn traits and characteristics inherited from parentsNurture- environmental influences, both before and after birthACTIVE (organism) VS PASSIVE (mechanistic)Organismic-People are active growing organisms that set their own development in motion ACT not react to environmental influences*cannot predict behavior by simple responses to environmental stimulus Emphasize qualitative change, see development occurring in STAGES each sstage builds on previous stage.Mechanistic-People are like machines that REACT to environmental influence, if we learn enough about human Machine we can predict what they will do*identifies and isolates factors that make people react as they do Focus on quantitative change, see development as continuous Quasi-Organismic- People change as there world changes them PerspectiveBeliefStage OrientedTheoriesPSYCHOANALYTICBehavior is controlled by powerful unconscious urgesPersonality influenced by society& develops through series of crises Yes/MechanisticYes/OrganismicFreud’s Psychosexual COGNITIVEChanges in thought occur between 0 to adolescenceLearn in social contextNO/MechanisticHUMANISTICPeople have ability to change lives & foster own develop.NO/OrganismicMaslow SelfactualizationETHOLOGICALHuman have adaptive mechanisms to survive periods stressed: predisposition for learningNO/BOTHBowlby’s & Ainsworth’s Attachment TheoryCONTEXTUALDevelopment occurs through interaction between person & 5 surroundings interlocking systems of influenceChild’s Sociocultural context impact on developmentNO/OrganismicNO/OrganismicBronfenbrenner’s ecologicalPaul Baltes Identified 4 key principles of a life-span developmental approach::Development is lifelong- Each period of the life span is influenced by what happened before and will affect what is to come. Each period has its own characteristics and valueDevelopment Depends on history and context- Each person develops within a specific set of circumstances or conditions defined by time and place. Human beings influence, and are influenced by historical and social context. Responding to physical and social environments but also interact with and change themDevelopment is Multidimensional & multidirectional- Development throughout life involves a balance of growth and decline.
As people gain in one area they may lose in another. People seek to maximize gains & to minimize losses by learning to manage or compensate for themDevelopment is Pliable/Plastic modifiability of performance)- Abilities, such as memory, strength and endurance can be improved with training and practice. Observational Studies- observe behaviors in naturalistic or laboratory setting +can observe wide range of human behavior, behaviors can be clearlydefined and studied, see development naturally, Inexpensive- cannot infer causality (causation), does not answer why behaviors take placeSelf Report Studies- interview subjects directly about thoughts and feelings or behaviors+quick, efficient, can control information individuals receive, inexpensive- not feasible with some people, clinical interviews expensive and subject to bias,respondents often give inaccurate infoCorrelational Studies-Documenting systematic, linear relations between variables+can determine how different variables related, identify factors that associated w/increased risk, examine relations in situations that can’t be controlled experimentally-just because 2 variables correlated, doesn’t mean they co-occur, correlations don’tprove causationExperimental Studies-manipulating 1+ variable & determining effect on 2nd variable+can determine causality, can control all other variables -costly, not feasible w/some designs (longitudinal), can’t study everything Quasi-Experimental-when it’s not possible to manipulate IV, can sometimes examine haw a-prior variations of IV are related to specific outcomesBehaviorist-studies basic mechanics of learning. Concerned w/how behavior changes in response to experiencePsychometric-measures individual differences in quantity of intelligence w/IQ test.Piagetian- looks at changes in quality of cognitive functioning. Concerned w/how mind structures its activities and adapts to environmentBirth Can perceive speech, cry, make some response to sound4-6Begins to store sound patterns & link sounds w/meaning6-12recognizes basic sounds of own language & becomes aware of rules10-12Can no longer discriminate sounds not in language13 Understands symbolic function of naming, uses representational gestures16-24Learns many words, expanding vocab.
Rapidly 50-400, uses verbs & adjectives20Uses fewer gestures: names more things24Uses many 2word phrases, no babbling, wants to talk30Learns words every day, speaks in combination of 3+ words understands well36Says up to 1000words, 80% intelligible, makes some mistakes in syntaxSKINNER’s Classic Learning Theory-Children learn language through operant conditioningObservation, Imitation, Reinforcement NATIVISM Chomsky‘s- humans have inborn capacity for language acquisition, Children of all background learn language at same age, humans only capable of language LADPhonemes-basic units of sound, babbling 1st evidence of phonetic production 7mPROSODY-using melody to change meaning, Semantics-knowledge words have meaning, requires knowledge of symbolsSYNTAX- grammar of language, making sentences 24mPragmatics-unspoken rules, culturally basedTEMPERAMENTStable, early appearing constellation of personality characteristics believed to have hereditary basis, way of reacting/approaching a situationGender typing begins very early fathers especially promote. Emotional expressions/communicationsAttachment Theory- emotional tie between infant and caregiver, any activity on babies part that leads to response from adult is seen as attachment seekingSecure-infant cries when mom leaves & actively seeks out when returnsAvoidant-infant rarely cries when separated & avoids contact upon return, angryAmbivalent-infant becomes anxious before separation, extremely upset during absence & seeks and resist contact on returnDisorganized-Disoriented-After separation infant shows contradictory behaviors, least secure may greet mother brightly and then turn away, possible abuse, insensitive, intrusiveEmotional Communication-essential for infants who depend on adults for care. Begins with crying, smiling and laughing. Emotions such as embarrassment, empathy and envy do not develop until after development of self awareness-understanding they are separate functioning beingsSelf Concept-sense of self: descriptive & evaluative mental picture of one’s abilities & traitsStagesPhysical self-recognition & self awareness 18-24mSelf description & self evaluation 19-30Piaget’s preoperational Thought0-2 Sensorimotor schemes based in action, Means-end Behavior, separation of self2-7 Pre-Operational- Schemes based in symbols. must overcome egocentrism, illogical problem solving skills & focus on single dimensions/irreversibility. Symbolic functioning-ability to use symbols, words, #’s or images to which a person has attached meaning Children shoe symbolic function through deferred imitation, pretend play, and language7-11 Concrete Operational- Schemes based in logic, ability to perform mental operations, have external object present mustHave understanding of spatial concepts map or modelCategorization: seriation, transitive inference, class inclusion, inductive & deductive reasoningConservation: identical clay balls can be shaped different child will know there same sizeNumber: count in there head, add, solve story problems11-15 Formal Operations Schemes abstract mental structures, thinking logical, flexibility of thought Theory of MIND- children become more aware of mental activity and the functioning of the mind.
Sara wants to save cookies for herself so she hides them from her brother in the toiletKnowledge about thinking-know about thinking, but unaware when it occurs & what people are thinking aboutFantasy vs. Reality happens between 18m – 3yrsFalse Beliefs & Deception-realization that people hold mental representations of reality that can be wrong. 4-5yrs D effort to plant false beliefs in someone, requires child to suppress impulse to be truthful differentiate lie and mistakeAppearance vs.
Reality-require child to refer to 2 conflicting images (milk white or green)Language Development- vocab. Increases rapidly through fast mapping (absorbing meaning after hearing it once). More competent in pragmatics as engage in social speech. Private speech thought to help integrate language with thought.
Intelligence testing-scores influenced by influenced by social & emotional functioningStanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-measures memory, spatial orientation and practical judgmentWechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence-3-7yrs yields verbal and performance scores/combinedTest based on Vygotsky’s approach focus on potential than achievement ZPD when combined with scaffolding (support of child while mastering task) can help parents and teachers guide progressChild centered programs child actively direct their own learning experience appear more effective than academically directed or middle of the road.Head start adopted whole child approach. Goals to improve health, enhance cognitive skills and foster self confidence, relationships, social responsibilities, and sense of dignity and self worth. While IQ gains do not last, decreased likelihood of juvenile delinquency, increased graduation ratesFivush-Process in which parents teach children how to remember.Elaborativeness about emotional event depends on if child male or femaleMothers talked about sadness more with daughtersMothers talked more about fear, anger with sons.
Through conversations with parents about past, children learn importance of talking about past, learn what’s important to recount and how to describe experiences Generic-produces script of familiar routines to guide behavior, helps know how to actEpisodic-Long term memory of specific experience linked to time and placeAutographical memory-form’s persons life historyImplicit-preserved in unconscious. Studies suggest people may retain early memories of which they are not aware, that may affect behaviorSELF CONCEPT-image of self and understanding of how others see them, determines how we feel about ourselves and guides actions1st Single representation-all or nothing can not see real self is not same as ideal self2nd Representational mappings-logical connections between aspects of self/all positive3rd Representational Systems- multidimensional concept0-Do not understand that 2 feelings can coexist Can’t be happy and scarred1-Aware of two emotions but must be + or – towards same target Happy and Glad2- Capable of RM have 2 emotions still + or – towards different targets3-Integrate sets of + & – emotions but towards different targets4-can describe conflicting feelings toward same targetErikson Stages-permanently shape personality resolution of stage require balance of + & -Trust vs. mistrust 0-18mSense of world is good & safeHopeAutonomy vs.
shame 12-18mBalance of independence & selfWillInitiative vs. Guilt 3-6yrsDevelops initiativePurposeIndustry vs. Inferiority 6-P Learn skills of cultureSkillsIdentity vs. id confusion P^Determine sense of selfFidelityIntimacy vs. Isolation 20+Makes commitments to othersLoveGenerativity vs.
stagnation 30+Guiding next generationCareIntegrity vs. Despair 40+Acceptance of ones lifeWisdomGender Identity-awareness of one’s gender and all it impliesBiological- difference traced to biological factorsPsychoanalytic- gender occurs when child identifies with parentCognitive- once child learns sex, sort info about behavior by gender and act accordinglyGender Identity-* Gender Stability-* Gender Constancy+Gender Schema- organizes info about appropriate behavior from cultureOnce sex know develop concept of what it means to be male/femaleSocialization-gender typing result of socially transmitted standardsParental, peer, cultural influencesFunctional-lowest cognitive level, involving repetitive muscular movement, run skip hopConstructive-2nd level, use of objects to make something, blocks, crayonsPretend-3rd level, imaginary people or situationsSolitary-plays alone w/toys that are different then other children’sParallel-play alone w/same toys as nearby childrenCooperative-play in organized group w/common goal formal gameInfluences on play gender and cultureDiscipline-methods for teaching child character, self-control, and acceptable behavior, tool of socializationReinforcement/Punishment-must be consistent, immediate & fair to be effectivePower Assertion-discourages behavior w/physical or verbal enforcement: demands, threats, spankingInductive-induces behavior by appealing to child’s sense of fairness: setting limits, explaining, discussWithdraw of Love-involve ignoring, isolating, or showing dislike for childPermissive-self expression & self regulation parents resources not modelsAuthoritative- Blending respect for child’s individuality w/effort to instill social valuesPhysical abuse-action taken to endanger childNeglect- failure to meet child’s basic needs Sexual abuse-sexual activity involving childEmotional-action or inaction that may cause behavioral, cognitive, emotional disorderCan cause disorganized-disoriented attachments to parents, and negative disoriented self images. Especially effects later school performance, social relationships, adaptability and problem solvingGirls More skilled in verbal Boys more skilled in numeric and visual spatial taskFew gender differences in social behaviorAggression boys greater than girlsGirls label emotions more than boysInformation Processing: memory is filing system with 3 stepsEncoding-info prepared for long-term storageRetrieval- when info need taking it out of fileWorking memory short term place for info being worked on. Visual and verbal maybe separate. Central Executive controls processing of info from working to long term storageLong term virtually unlimited storehouse.Metamemory understanding of processes of memory improves with ageElaboration-Making mental associationsImprovements in memory may contribute to mastery of conversation taskIntelligence ability to solve problems or create culturally valued products.
Componential-analytic aspect of intelligence: determines how efficiently people process info Tells people how to solve problems, monitor situations and evaluate resultsExperimental-determines how people approach novel or familiar task. Allows people to compare new info w/what they already know & come up with new ways of putting them together.Contextual- determines how people deal with environment. Ability to size up info and decide what to do next: adapt it, change it or get outDisruptive behavior disorders common among 4 yr but disappear by middle schoolOppositional defiant Disorder-pattern marked by negativity, hostility, defianceConduct Disorder repetitive pattern of aggressive antisocial, violating social normsSchool Phobia-unrealistic fear of going to schoolSeparation Anxiety-excessive prolonged anxiety concerning separationSocial Phobia-fear of and/or avoidance of social separation Childhood Depression Prolonged sense of friendlessness, inability to have fun, concentrate, fatigue.
Heredity thought to be modest. Girls more subject then boys.Behavior Therapy-therapeutic approach using principles of learning theory to encourage desired behavior or eliminate undesirable ones. Every time child puts toy away get rewardStressful events are apart of childhood but when stress becomes overwhelming, this can lead to psychological problems.Resilient children weather adverse circumstances, function well despite challenges or threats, or bounce back from traumatic eventsBibliography: