FR 139 Text Questions pp.
49-75 (for Test 2)1. What was the Reformation? It was a religious & political movement that had to do w/grievance w/the church. The Humanists wanted to challenge the Pope’s authority.
The Reformers wanted to have the rules be based on scripture. They believed in a simple life and felt the church and society were corrupt. 2 Reformers were Luther and Calvin.2. The Wars of Religion (dates, who was fighting, why?) 1560 -1593. Protestants and Catholics fought. House of Guise started it all.
Grievances against the Catholic Church grew.3. Monarchy during the wars of religion:Henri II (1547-1559) Son of Francois I. Became King when Francois I died, marry’s Catherine de Medica and has 6 kids. Francois II (1559-1560) – Son of Henri II.
Marry’s aMary Queen of Scots @ age 16, reigns for 1 yr. And dies.Charles IX (1560-1574) – Son of Henri II. Takes place as King for Francois and is ineffective.
Catherine de Medici regent from 1560 to 1563Henri III (1574-1589) – Son of Henri II. Takes over when brother Charles IX dies, he’s corrupt, antiprotesant, TV, Involved in War of the Three Henries. Fights Protesants and dies childless.
Henri IV (1589-1610) – Henry of Navarre’ and starts the Bourbon Dynasty, Good King Henri’. Assassinated in 1610. Brought an end to the wars (The Reformation) by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis and wanted a chicken in every pot.
Marries Mary de MediceThe Edict of Nantes 1598 – Gives benefits and freedom of worship to the Protestants.. The law of the land. Left off hereMonarchy following Henri IV: When Henri IV dies, Louis XIII was only 9 yrs. Old and too young to reign, so Marie and Concini became the rulers of France. When Louis XIII is 14 he was declared the age to assume his royal responsibilities.
Louis XIII joins a plot to have Concini killed and than defeats the Protesants, who lose their benefits and freedoms from The Edict of Nantes.Louis XIII (1610-1643) – Henri IV son and has Concini murdered.Marie de Medici regent from 1610 to 1614Richelieu – smart, political w/2 priorities: 10 destroy Huguenots, 2) weaken the Nobles.
It encourages trade over seas, est. companies over seas , strengthens the Navy, and protects clergy. Very effective. Mazarin – a shrewd diplomat who prepared Louis XIV for the succession of Spain by arranging his marriage to Marie Therese.Louis XIV the Sun King (1643-1715) also known as “Louis the Grand”, his mother, Ann of Austriche is regent for him and Mazarin runs things. Louis XIV held power for 72 yrs.
Motto, “I am the state” or “I King, I Law, I Faith”. He builds a chateau at Versailles and French became the language. Wealthy, powerful and populous. Died in 1715.Louis XV (1715-1774) Great grandson of Louis XIV, was an orphan, lazy, and liked women. Fought 2 wars against Austri and 1 war (7 yrs.
War) began in U.S. between France and England. France became a major industry power and agriculture grew. He had a tutor named Fleury (minister of state). Fleury dies and Louis XV takes over. Fleury reorganized finance and kept peace.
4. The French Revolution – everyone in society had a certain place in 3 estatesLouis XVI (1774-1792) – fat, clumsy, no will power, no taste for arts or music, married to Marie Antoinette.Marie Antoinette – aka Madam Defecit, was hated and married to Louis XVIThe Age of Enlightenment philosophical ideas, science took placeRobespierre – 1794, cult called worship of the supreme beingThe Reign of Terror – guillotineMaratCauses of the Revolution – financial, king spent too much money, poor people taxed, spent lots of money on war or American RevolutionThe 3 Estates – clergy, nobility, anyone elseThe Declaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenThe National Assembly – created by tennis court oath. 3rd estate that won’t disban until recognized. King calls army and citizens take arms, get amo from prison.
The First Republic 1792-1804 caused French revolution. Convention (1792-1795) was the 1st Gov. Abolished church and calendar. Stopped by killing Robes Piere.Essay 5. Napoleon Bonaparte and the Consulate – successful soldier, drew Austrians out of Italy, hero, coup detat of Fruitidor. Consulate 1799-1804 ; counselor is Napolean.
Reconciles France w/Vatican, makes peace w/England, est. civil code, reforms education, sets up High School, org. finances 6. Napoleon Emperor (First Empire 1804-1814) abolishes republican calendar.7. The Restoration of the Bourbon Dynasty (1814-1848) Louis XVIII, 100 days in power and Napolean return and is taken prisoner, dies 1821.8.
The Second Republic (1848-1852) Louis Napolean presidentLouis-Napoleon Bonaparte President (1848-1852)Essay 9. The Second Empire (1852-1870) Napolean III rebuilds France and its infrastructure, free medicine to the poor, Paris modernized, improved economy, legalizes strikes and union, captured by Germans and flees to England. Germany becomes supreme power.
Napoleon III Emperor (1852-1870)Movie: French Revolution, age of enlightenment (don’t trust authority or the police), the Hing and Queen were forced to move to Paris. Louis stripped of power and the French republic was born.