Who built the Egyptian pyramids? For centuries, the Egyptian Pyramids and theSphinx have stood a silent testimony to a great and powerful civilization longsince ground to dust. But behind the great walls of the Pyramids and this longlasting silence, mysteries are still unrevealed and the explanation of thesemysteries is a set of theories based on observation and on the printed texts onthe Pyramids walls. One great mystery was the one dealing with the building ofthe Pyramids and the Sphinx.

In fact, there are two major theories (Pahl 1998) (Ashmawy1995- 1997) explaining why the Pyramids were built. The first one states thatthe ancient Egyptian people built them as tombs for their great kings (Ashmawy1995- 1997) (Cottrell 1956), and the other one is that they were built by otherpeople more technologically advanced than us, whose purposes were much moreimportant than building tombs for dead Kings (Bauval & Hancock 1996). Thereis an ancient Egyptian proverb, that says: “Everything fears time, but timefears the Pyramids”. They are the only Wonders of the ancient world toremain standing, which do not need to be described. Their enormous size madeHerodotus the “Father of the ancient history”, Napoleon, Alexander theGreat, and many more important invaders to stand in awe overwhelmed by thegreatest structures on earth.

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As for the roots of the word pyramid, they areunknown for it has no origin in any language on earth (Russel & Sellier1994). The first conventional and widely approved theory, says that the Pyramidswere constructed by the Egyptian people 4500 years ago, and states that they aretombs for the dead kings. In fact, the Great Pyramid was constructed by the kingKhufu to become his tomb when he dies. For instance, Pyramid building was atradition to the old Egyptians before Khufu’s age, which started as a smallstructure known as Mastaba (the Mastaba is an Arabic word meaning a bench),which was a small structure were the king and his personal belongings wereburied. (Ashmawy 1995) (Cottrell 1956. The reason that lies beyond the buildingof such great structures was related to the Egyptian religion. The Egyptianreligion was a very complex one, based on many after-death believes.

Furthermore, through the help of the scenes, paintings, and texts that are foundon the walls of the Pyramids, we conclude that the reason that led the Egyptiansto build the Pyramids was to protect the body of the mummified king. Besides,the reason to mummification was due to their belief that as long as the bodyendured, so long the soul continued with it (Wallbank p26) not as quickening andanimating it but as an attendant or guardian unwilling to leave the formerhabitation (Moffet p22). On the other hand, when entering the Great Pyramid, thescholars found that the king’s body was missing which lead the scientists tobelieve that it was stolen, just like other smaller Pyramids which were foundempty. Moreover, the pyramidologists got the idea that these empty Pyramids aretombs for old pharos, because there are more than seventy Pyramids found inEgypt which contained mummified bodies of old dead kings (Russel & Sellier).As for the way they were built, the scientists released a very popular theory,which states that the limestones of which the Pyramids are built, were quarriedfrom the Mokkatam Hills, on the opposite bank of the river, and floated acrossin barges at flood time. Herodotus describes that as each layer of blocks waslaid, an earth ramp was raised by gathering earth and stones covered with water,keeping a constant angle so that the ramp would get longer and longer as thework proceeded, on which the block was dragged up (Kemp 1989). So by puttingeach block on its specific site, the construction was complete in twenty years,by a hundred thousand workers, as Herodotus said.

( Kemp 1989) But is itpossible that a 450 feet high, having a base of 755 feet, with 22 acres of stonebocks weighing an average of 2.5 tons each, was built with the old pharaoniccivilization tools? Another group of archeologists thinks that the Pyramidscould not have been built by the “Quasi stone-aged technology of 2900BC” (Russel & Sellier 1994). They agree that the objective of thesePyramids was more important than being a pharaoh’s tomb. In going back to theeighth century DC, the Islamic Caliph Al Ma’moun, was told that the GreatPyramid contained treasures and an important store of knowledge.

So he tried toenter the pyramid but he couldn’t find an entrance, so he had to tunnel into thepyramid starting from a hinged opening from the north side. After several monthsof tunneling, he reached seventy feet encountering on the way all kinds of hugegranite block, blocking the way. Once he found the passageway to the king’sroom, he found out that it was empty (Jensen & York). So upon thisdiscovery, the scientists started thinking about the Great Pyramid, that it wasnever robbed from its contents because there weren’t any. Thinking about it fora while we see that since Al Ma’moun dug his way though, it would be impossiblefor thieves to come at night and enter the pyramid to steel its contents, unlessif there was another way to enter the pyramid which until now is uncovered.

Furthermore, after the checking of the Great Pyramid by civil engineers it wasrevealed that its structure is unique in the world, and “impossible toduplicate nowadays”. In fact, Gregory Pyros, -AIA -architect- negotiatesthat such a great structure should sink slowly in the ground at a fixed ratelike all other buildings. For example the U.

S. capitol, Gregory says, hassettled 5 inches during the last 200 years. But the Great Pyramid settled forless than 1.5 inches during the last 4500 years (Russel & Sellier 1994). Notonly architects were astonished by this great structure, but also geologists andmathematicians are truly amazed by the distinct properties of the Great Pyramid.

Its placement on the earth is exactly at 31 degrees east, 30 degrees north whichis in fact the middle of the earth (Pahl 1998). And building such a structurewould require a knowledge of the structure of the earth, the longitude and thelatitude in addition to the science of astronomy, a knowledge which did notexist in the Egyptian time (Russel & Sellier 1994) (Pahl 1998). In addition,after the discovery of the hieroglyph by the French scientist Champollion, thescientists could read all the written texts left by the Egyptians. And theastonishing discovery was that there weren’t any text describing the process ofbuilding the Pyramids, not any single picture or drawing related to them (Kemp1989)(Russel ; Sellier 1994)(Cottrell 1956). Moreover, this group ofscientists thinks of a relationship between the Giza monuments, and anotherplace that exists on Mars, that could explain who build these giganticstructures.

After the filming of the Cedonian location on the planet Mars by thespaceship Viking, the archeologists turned their researches over the red planetand what was found on it. The Cedonian location contained a human face likestructure 450 meters high and more than one mile long, in addition to somepyramidal structures geometrically displaced, impossible to be formed unless byan intelligent life. And the relationship to the Giza complex on earth was thatthe Martian face, after complete studies and comparison, matched the face of theSphinx. Moreover, the position of the pyramidal structures, especially theD;N pyramid, are perfectly fitted with the ones on Earth (Bauval ;Hacock 1996) (Russel ; Sellier 1994). These recent discoveries are to beproved in the future with another spaceship that will photograph the Cedonianlocation.

So the answer to the question: “which theory is moreconvincing”, depends on the more logical and realistic proofs that any ofthe two parties can offer. In the future NASA is the only hope who is able toreveal the relationship between the Giza monuments and the Cedonian ones.Meanwhile children in schools are taught that the Pyramids are pharaohs’ tombsand the Great Pyramid is the tomb of the king Khufu, considering what is a mereunproven theory, that is, nevertheless, very credible, as an established fact.Mythology

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