the whole 3rd quarter World Hist. class (AG)EUROPEAN EXPLORATION 1400-1750 Renaissance technology allowed for overseas exploration.
-astrolabe -sextant -new ships (caravel) -geometry for better map making Cartography- knowledge of how to make maps Cartographer-map maker Time Line 500 bc- southern Europe, North Africa, Mid East, Med. Sea. 1000 ad All of Europe, Scandinavia, India, South East Asia 1500 ad Iceland, Greenland, Coastal Regions of Africa, China 1600 ad Russia, South America, North America, Pacific Ocean 1700 ad Australia, Pacific islands, Asia, Arctic, Antarctic region Countries of Early Exploration Portugal 1420-1580, Portugal began exploring the east coast of Africa: Prince Henry of Portugal was very interested in ships and navigation.
Henry had a naval Academy established in Sagres Portugal: Students of this school would go onto rediscover the Azure Island in 1432 Maderia and Cape Verde islands off the west coast of Africa. Christopher Columbus will be influenced greatly by these early explorations. 1488 !Bartholomeu Diaz rounded the southern tip of Africa- “Cape of Good Hope” 1497 Vasco DaGamma explored the east coast of Africa He made contacts with Muslims traders of fine silk, porcelain and spices. *DaGamma also pioneered a water route to India. Spain 1480 Spain unites under the union of queen Isabella and King Ferdinand after defeating the last remaining Islamic strong holds in Spain. 1486 Christopher Columbus will approach Queen Isabella with his plan on reaching India by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean.
Aug. 1492 Columbus sailed with three ships (Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria) he calculated the distance to India to be 700 leagues 2,200 naudical miles. *Columbus will land in the islands in the Caribbean and will claim them for Spain and name them Hispanida.
Line of Demarcation (1493) competition between Portugal and Spain over territory in the new world brought the two nations to sign a Treaty of Toresillas to establish a line separating Portuguese and Spain territorie!s in the western hemisphere 1519- Ferdinand Magellon, a Portuguese sailing for Spain will be credited as the first explorer to Circumnavigate (sail around the world)the globe (3 ships, 18 survivors) Other countries that will explore: Holland, England, France. Reasons For Exploration- Find new and quicker trade routes to Asia: New wealth for European nations: New religious fervor to Christianize the world: To obtain new resources and raw materials. Voyage and Settlement conquistadors- Spanish conqueror Hervan Cortez- conquistador who conquered the Aztec Empire(1519) Montezuma- ruler of the Aztec Empire Tenachtitilan- the capital of the Aztec Empire (Mexico city). The three factors of – Spanish exploration- Gold, God, and Glory. Francisco Pizarro- conquistador who conquers the Inca Empire. Hernando DeSoto-1541 explored the Mississippi river.
Francisco Vasquiz Decornando- explored the grand canyon Spanish exports from the New World. -animal hides -sugar -tobacco -gold -silver. !COLONIAL TRADE *In order for there to be overseas exploration there had to be people willing to invest $ in the voyage before purchasing of ships, supplies, and paying for a crew could take place. -In turn for taking financial risk of investing their $ these investors guaranteed some type of reward. -those rewards came based upon the wealth gained from the things acquired from the voyage. IE. Gold, Silver, animal skins, spices, jewels, silk, tobacco, sugar, rum, etc.
. Joint-Stock Co.-organization that sold stock or shares in the venture, enabling large and small investors to share the profits and their risks of trading voyages.
Entrepreneur- people willing to take the risk of investing their $ in order to start a business Mercantilism-the idea that a nation’s power depends upon it’s wealth -the more wealth for a nation, the more powerful it became. Bullion-the amt. Of gold and silver owned by a nation. Balance of Trade-where amt. Exported exceeds the amt.
imported. -though !this nation’s could gain wealth.1650-Spain= most land in North America was claimed British, Spain, France, Dutch.
1753- Spain = most land in N. America. Alaska = Russian Mississippi Valley = French England’s possessions separated by French land claims. RISE OF ABSOLUTE MONARCHY (1500-1775) Absolutism-Ruler has complete and total power. Devine-Right Monarchy Philip II- King of Spain 1556-1598 Queen Elizabeth I-Queen of England Spanish Armada- Spanish fleet sent to invade England 1588.
Spanish Netherlands-Spanish held Holland. Balance Of Power-division of power between nations = peace. Louis XIV- King of France 1643 reigned for 72 years. ” l ‘Etste c’est Moi ” I am the state. Characteristics of absolutism- Basic Principle- monarch rules by divine right and decides what’s best for the state. Political-ruler holds unlimited power Individuals Are subjects owing loyalty and obedience.
Social- Ruler dominates upper class which in turn dominate lower classes. Economic- Ruler encourag!es industry and trade to strengthen the economy. Cultural- Ruler dominates cultural life either as patron of arts or by censorship. *divine right monarchy of Europe- Charles I-England; Louis XIV- France; Fredric Williams I- Prussia (German state); Peter I- Russia. Boyars- Russian Nobility. Rise of Russia Tzar(czar)- emperor of Russia *Romanov family 1553-1917 Ivan IV- most powerful ruler of Russia 1553-1584 “Ivan the Terrible” 1689-1700- Peter I (Peter the Great) becomes Tzra of Russia, opened Russia up to the West.
, obtained new European technology, learning, and ways of thinking. Head of the Catholic Church in France Cardinal Richelieu. Family that ruled Austria Hapsburgs. Family that ruled Prussia Hohenzollerns.
Aztec God, 1/2 bird , Quetzalcoatal.