Human Anatomy 3BMarch 8th, 2004The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Also, it is the mostvisible part. It also dominates the adult brain. Most of it is inprocessing somatic sensory and motor information.
Two types of matter arelocated in the cerebrum. Gray matter is a substance known as the cerebralcortex. It is located in the cerebral nuclei.
White matter is deep in theneural cortex and by the cerebral nuclei. Gray matter is the part of thebrain that is responsible for processing information. White matter isdifferent. It is responsible for the transmission of information. Areasof gray matter are known as basal ganglia. They are dispersed throughoutthe white matter. The white matter contains association fibers,commissural fibers, and projection fibers.
A coat of neural cortex coversthe two hemispheres. Elevated forms of ridges of the brain are calledgyri. They are separated by depressions called sulci or fissures. Thesurface area of the two hemispheres is about two and one half feet.
Longitudinal fissures separate the hemispheres. Each hemisphere is dividedinto lobes. They are like fingerprints, they are all different. On eachhemisphere, the central sulcus divides the frontal lobe from the temporallobe. The primary motor cortex of the gyrus directs voluntary movements.The primary sensory cortex receives somatic sensory information.
Thegeneral interpretive area receives information from all the sensoryassociation areas. The parieto-occipital sulcus divides the parital lobefrom the occipital lobe. Each hemisphere receives sensory information, andsends motor command to the opposite side of the body.
They also look thesame, but have many different functions. The frontal lobe is a voluntarycontrol of skeletal muscles. The parietal lobe is the perception of touch,pressure, vibration, pain, temperature, and taste. It also controlsconscious thoughts and memory. The occipital lobe is the perception ofvisual stimuli.
The temporal lobe is the perception of auditory andolfactory stimuli. All of the lobes function in the processing of sensorydata, and initiation of motor activities. The somatic motor associationarea coordinates learned movements.
The general interpretive area receivesinformation from all of the sensory association areas. It is only presentin the left hemisphere of the brain. The speech center regulates thepatterns of breathing and vocalization needed for normal speech.
Theprefrontal cortex coordinates information from the secondary and specialassociation areas of the entire cortex and performs abstract functions.The cerebral nuclei in the white matter of the cerebrum are the caudatenucleus, amygdaloid body, globus pallidus, and putamen. They controlmuscle tone and coordinate learned movement patterns and other somaticmotor activities. Some symptoms from it are aphasia, dyslexia, anddisconnection syndrome. Aphasia is a disorder that affects the ability tospeak and read.
Dyslexia is a disorder that affects the use of words.Disconnection syndrome is when the corpus callosum is cut. If thishappens, the two hemispheres work on their own and are unaware of motorcommands. Someone could touch something, but not say what it is whileknowing the object.http://www.heaphy.com/cerebrum.htmhttp://neurosurgery.mgh.harvard.edu/abta/primer.htm#Cerebrum