IntroductionA. HistoryB. What Is CancerC. Types Of CancerII. How Cancer is DiagnosedIII.
Seven warning SignsIV. Possible Causes Of CancerA. EnvironmentB. VirusesC. HaereditatisD.
The SunE. The AirV. TreatmentsA. SurgeryB. RadiationC.
ChemotherapyVI. PreventionA. PrimaryB. SecondaryCancerHistoryCancer is the second cause of death in the United States Heartdisease is the first. Each year more than a million Americans get medicalcare for cancer and over 330,000 die from the disease. Cancer is one ofmans dreaded diseases. It attacks people of all ages.
Cancer kills morechildren than any other disease. About 4,000 children under 15 years olddie of cancer each year. half of the deaths are from leukemia. Leukemiais a cancer of the blood forming tissues.Cancer has been observed in many forms of animal and plant life,as well as in man. More than 200 kinds of cancer affect human beingsand each kind differs from the others.
All cancer start in living cells. Researchers are still looking for answers to many questions about cancer. For instance, scientists do not know what exactly causes cancer. Onceresearchers find the cause of cancer then they will be able to find ways tocure and prevent the disease. They also want to develop better ways todetect and treat s all forms of cancer.In the United States, the National Cancer Institue has played amajor role in Cancer research since it was established in 1937. TheAmerican Cancer Society also support research programs.
The NationalCancer Act of 1971 expanded government efforts in cancer research.Cancer research and control programs have made definite progress. In 1900, cancer was almost always fatal. I the 1930s fewer than one ofevery five patients were saved.
Today, doctors successfully treat one ofevery three people who get cancer. Some experts believe that if all presentknowledge were used promptly in every case of cancer at least half of allcancer patients could be saved. The American Cancer Society wasfounded in 1913.
The first United States cancer hospital was founded in1884, in New York City. Which later became the Memorial Hospital in1889. The very first cancer hospital was founded in Reims, France in the1700s.What is Cancer?Cancer is a general term for more than 250 diseases that arecharacterized by uncontrolled, abnormal growth of cells. Cancer cells canspread through the blood and the clear fuild that bathes body cells calledlymph to start new cancers in other parts of the body. Normal cells canconvert to abnormal cancer cells. Cancer cells reproduce more rapidlythan normal cells and ignore normal regulations of when, how, and whereto grow.
Normal cells are more concerned with function than growth. Cancer cells are more concerned with growth than function. Cancer cellsseem to be able to grow anywhere in the body.
Different kinds of cancergrow at different rates and respond to different kinds of treatments. Butall produce use less tissue and keep normal cells from gettingnourishment. Cancer cells that are not treated displace normal cells andeventually destroy them.Types of CancerThere are about 250 different types of cancers that exist.
They areclassified into two ways, one is the part of the body where the cancer cellsfirst develop and the second the type of body tissue where the cancerbegins. Cancer that starts in the tissue that forms the skin and linings ofthe body organs is called carcinoma. Cancers of the skin, breast, and bodysystems are carcinomas and are the most common cancer that begins inthe tissue that forms the bodys supporting structures is sarcoma. Someexamples are bones, muscles and catalogue.Other types of cancer are skin, lung, colo-retal which is coloncancer, breast, uterine-Cervix, ovary, vaginal, testicular, mouth andthroat, larynx, exophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver and bone. There aremany more.
The most common for young people are osteogenic sarcomawhich is known as bone cancer, Ewings sarcoma another bone cancer,lymphomas, and rhadomyosarcoma.How Cancer Is DiagnosedCancer has often been called the silent killer. It gives no warning of itspresence in the early stages. Cancer can be diagnosed during a physicalexamination.
In woman a doctor can check for cancer of the cervix andthe uterine by a pap smear test. The doctor can also use X-ray technologyto detect cancer. A diopsy is another method of accurately diagnosingcancer. Doctors urge that every person have at least one complete physicaleach year.
Seven Warning SignsThere are seven warning signs that a person should be aware of:Unusual bleeding or dischargeA lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhereA sore that does not heal.Change in bowel or bladder habits.Hoarseness or a continuing cough.Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing.Change in a wart or mole.Any of these symptoms one should consult a doctor promptly.
The earlydetection of cancer the better.Possible Causes Of CancerNo one know exactly what causes cancer. Most scientists believethat there is no single cause and that many factors maybe involed. Apersons work or place where he or she lives may contribute to the disease. People who are frequently in contact with certain knids of chemicals maydevelop the disease. Manufacturers whose products require the use ofcarcinogens which are cancer-producing substances, take steps to safeguard workers against exposure to them.
Carcinogens consist ofhumanmade and natural chemicals found in small quantities in the air,water, food, and the work place. It has been difficult proving that virusesare the cause of cancer. So viruses dont play a big role in causingcancer, yet. Some doctors believe that a tendency to develop certain typesof cancer may be inherited.
The skin is greatly effected the sun. Theultraviolet radiation from the sun harms the skin because of the directexopsure to sunlight. Lung cancer has shown the greatest increase of anyform of cancer in the past 35 years. We inhale about 20 breaths perminute.
The air we breathe is directly related to our quality of health. Cigarette smoking and air pollution are two main factoers that areincreasing lung cancer. Industrail wastes, automobile exhausts, andhousehold sources cause air pollutions.
Treatments Of CancerCancer treatment has improved tremedously in the past 50 years. Inthe 1930s the disease was stopped in only about 20% of cancer patients. Now that percentage is about 41%. Surgery has been used to treat breastand intestinal cancer. This method has been successful. Surgery hascured more cancers than radiation and chemotherapy. Radiation issuccessfull in stopping some forms of cancer such as cervical cancer.
Cobalt units are used in the treatment of radiation. It penetrates a tumorwithout damaging the skin. These two methids, radiation and surgery areused when the cancer is located in a local spot that has not spread throughthe body.
Chemotherapy is used to destroy malignant cells withoutexcessive destruction of the normal cells. Some risks of chemotherapy aresevere nausea, vomitting, and the loss of hair on head.PreventionsThere are some possible prevenions in getting cancer. Primary andSecondary prevention are some possibilities. Primary prevention is theabsence of disease.
It is the steps taken to prevent a disease from everdeveloping. Primary prevention is health and wellness. Secondaryprevention is early detection or screening. Such as getting a pap smeartest for detectio of early cervical cancer. Preventions begin with theindividual and includes healthy eating habits, moderate alcoholconsumption regular physical activity, avoidance of cigarette smoking,regular medical checkups and minimizing exposure to pollutants in theair, water, and food. It is never too late to begin.
Cancer can be avoided.BIBLIOGRAPHYUnderstanding Cancer, Mark Renneker M.D., 1988Bull Publishing CompanyCancer and Nutrition, Elizabeth Somer, MA, RD, 1990Health Media of America, Inc.Glencoe Health, Mary Bronson Merki, Ph.D., Don Merki, Ph.D.Glencoe Publishing CompanyThe World Book Encyclopedia, Vol 3,Enterprises Education Corporation, 1986